Several research groups have reported successful in vitro fertilization in the nonhuman primate. The efforts of our laboratory were first fully reported in 1975 (Dukelow and Kuehl, 1975; Kuehl and Dukelow, 1975a). Since that time a number of publications have appeared from our laboratory relating to in vitro fertilized primate oocytes and were recently summarized (Dukelow et al., 1983).
To successfully achieve a pregnancy it is necessary to not only in vitro fertilized the oocyte but also to effectively transfer the embryo to a recipient female. The first surgical transfer of an in vivo fertilized embryo was accomplished in the baboon by Kraemer et al. (1976). The first nonsurgical transfer was carried out by Pope et al. (1983) in the baboon. This involved an in vivo fertilized embryo. Finally, on July 25,1983, exactly five years after the birth of the first human in vitro fertilized embryo transfer baby, a baboon was born by this procedure (Kuehl et al., 1983). At the time of the writing of this manuscript, another baboon is pregnant as a result of transfer of an in vivo fertilized embryo that had been frozen, stored, and thawed (Dr. C. E. Pope, personal communication).
Thus it would appear that all of the procedures necessary for examining the normality of nonhuman primate offspring resulting from in vitro fertilization are available and tested. In addition to the research groups already cited, others have reported preliminary studies indicating successful in vitro fertilization in the rhesus monkey (Bavister et al., 1983), the cynomolgus macaque (Kreitmann et al., 1982) and the chimpanzee (Gould, 1983).