77 grados Kelvin

LA SELECCIÓN DE RAZAS ES EL PRIVILEGIO … LA CONSERVACIÓN ex situ ES LA REGALÍA.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOTECHNOLOGIES FOR ENDANGERED MAMMALIAN SPECIES.

Habitat preservation is virtually, the best way to conserve biodiversity, but small population propagation is part of multidisciplinary research including genetic and ecological characterizations needing further strategies. In situ conservation enables in live populations of animals in their adaptive environments to be maintained the usual strategy for endangered domestic breeds.
But these efforts are sometimes insufficient for the propagation of small populations and maintaining of adequate genetic diversity. Thus, ex situ conservation is aimed at establishing a viable population in captivity for an eventual reintroduction and at cryo-preserving animal genetic resources (gametes, embryos, DNA, serum). However, the reproduction process may be impaired in captivity by small space, health and husbandry problems, a non adapted diet, modified sexual behavior or infertility.
Therefore, field conservation and captive breeding need the help of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) including gamete cryopreservation, artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer and in vitro fertilization (IVF). ART allow to obtain more offspring from selected genitors to ensure genetic diversity and may reduce the interval between generations. As we will analyze in the first part of this review the utilization of reproductive biotechnologies for endangered mammalian species is not easy because of the broad biological variability between species and the sparse knowledge about it. In a second part, the current status of ART in endangered domestic breeds and non-domestic species will be reviewed.

Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 40 (2000) 493–504

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